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an evergreen conifer with an imposing appearance, widespread in Europe and North America, in the wild it can even reach 40-45 meters in height; it is the fir tree that is most often used as a Christmas tree. It has a conical, compact, dark green crown; the needles are quite small, joined in hanging cones; the bark is dark and wrinkled, producing perfumed resin. This conifer is widely used as a bonsai, together with the varieties P. Abies 'little gem' nana, and P. glauca albertiana conica, with a particularly compact crown. Bonsai conifers involve a certain amount of effort in shaping, not always advisable for a beginner; does not present any particular cultivation problems.
Pruning and exposure
it is pruned at the end of winter, in February, usually trying to create well-defined stages that give movement to the compact foliage, obviously the major prunings depend very much on the style chosen. During the growing season it is good to trim the longer shoots with your fingers, shortening them to a third of their length. The wire can be used throughout the year.
The fir trees love a luminous position, even in full sun, in all seasons, even if it is advisable to shade them on the hottest summer days, to avoid excessive desiccation. The youngest specimens are to be sheltered from the intense winter frost with non-woven fabric on the vase and on the roots.
Spruce - Picea abies: Other tips
Watering: wait for the soil to dry slightly between one watering and another, in summer enough watering, vaporizing the foliage with distilled water. During the growing season, add bonsai fertilizer to the watering water every 10-15 days.
Soil: it has no particular soil requirements, as long as it is well drained; an ideal soil can be prepared by mixing one part of peat, three parts of sand and two parts of clay. It is usually repotted every two years, possibly in March.
Multiplication: occurs by seed, which must be harvested at the beginning of autumn and sown in the spring. During the winter they are kept in containers filled with sand, to prevent them from becoming damp and moldy. In spring, even semi-woody cuttings can be taken, to be rooted in a mixture of sand and peat.
Pests and diseases: sometimes the lanigeri aphids affect the young shoots. If the climate is very dry it can also be attacked by red spiders; generally, however, the fir is a plant that is not attacked by pests and diseases.