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The fireplace not only serves as a decorative function in the interior. You can buy a ready-made fireplace or build one yourself for a small amount of money.
- Fireplace in the house: basic functions and purpose
- Preparatory work for the construction of the fireplace
- Required materials for installation
- Building a fireplace from beams: step by step instructions
Fireplace in the house: basic functions and purpose
Initially, the fireplace in a country house was used to heat the building. They are not considered as a heating method now. It is more like a decorative element that creates a cozy and warm atmosphere in the room. Fireplaces can be open or closed.
The efficiency depends on the appearance. It is quite difficult to control the power of fire in an open fireplace, while it requires a lot of fuel. When installing such a fireplace, the room will quickly overheat, and when the flame begins to extinguish, the heat will decrease. These fireplaces are very dangerous: if a spark hits the floor, a fire can start.
Closed fireplace is safer and more economical. This type allows you to control the temperature and save firewood. The classic type of fireplace, which is most often found, is wood-burning. This is a kind of home. Firewood for the fireplace is an environmentally friendly material and does not carry any harm to the residents of the house.
Preparatory work for the construction of the fireplace
Before you start building a fireplace, you can order or create your own stove masonry scheme. When drawing up a drawing, it is necessary to make a calculation. First you need to measure the room where the fireplace will be located. If the living room is 15 square meters in size, and the ceiling height is 3.5 meters, then the volume of the room will be 52.5 m3.
Next, draw a diagram, observing the scale. The inner part of the firebox should be 1: 45-1: 65 of the area of the entire room. The depth of the combustion part is not more than half 2/3 of the length of the combustion hole. If you make the firebox too deep, then the level of efficiency decreases, but if it is not deep, then smoke will enter the room.
The optimal size of the chimney is about 5 meters, and its diameter should be at least 10 cm. To determine the size of the chimney opening, the area of the firebox should be calculated. It should be borne in mind that the size of the chimney should be 8 times less than the area of the combustion space.
Required materials for installation
After all calculations are made and the drawing is drawn up, you can prepare tools and materials. For work you will need:
- Purified river sand
- Kiln clay
- Crushed stone
- Rebar (length 70 cm, width 8-10 mm)
Bricks should be taken solid with clear edges. There should be no debris in the sand and it is better to take it with a fraction of 0.2 to 1.5 mm. If there is debris, fill the sand with water and then drain. Perform the procedure until the sand is clean and light.
You can take Cambrian clay, but if you have experience working with a furnace, then use it. The following tools must be prepared from the tools: a tape measure, a construction plumb line, a spatula, a grinder, a trowel and a container for cement mortar.
Building a fireplace: step by step instructions
Foundation device. The oven must not be located on the same base as the building. The thickness of the foundation for the fireplace should be 5-6 cm larger than the size of the basement row. You need to dig a pit to a depth of about 60 cm. In this case, the width should be 10-15 cm more of the future foundation. At the bottom of the pit, lay out crushed stone with a layer of about 10 cm and tamp. A building level is used for leveling. Next, with the help of boards, you need to knock down the formwork.
Treat the inner surface with roofing material, bitumen or glassine. Then place the formwork on the base and lay large stones on the bottom. Cover the space between them with rubble and fill with cement mortar. After that, carefully level the surface, check with a level and cover with polyethylene on top. The solution hardens within 7-10 days. After this period, you can start laying bricks.
Fireplace laying process. A couple of days before starting work, you need to soak the clay and, as it thickens, add water and stir until a homogeneous mass is obtained. The bricks are also prepared at this time. For work, use only plain and even bricks. They should first be cleaned and rubbed against each other.
To increase the strength of the structure, immerse the bricks in water so that air bubbles escape. This will avoid absorbing moisture from the prepared solution. Next, spread the waterproofing material in two layers on the surface of the foundation.
Put the brick on the rail, press it down, cover it with a solution and nail it down, lightly patting it. It is necessary to carry out the work carefully and control so that clay does not appear from behind the cracks. The bricks of the bottom row are laid out on the edge. Do not forget to control the geometric dimensions with a square, and the horizontal row with a level.
During construction it is important that the fireplace does not come into contact with external walls. This will avoid temperature fluctuations.
Chimney and vault laying. They are usually made curved and laid with 5-6 cm overlap of rows. The portal opening must be closed with jumpers. They are installed in the form of an arch, wedge or vault.
It is necessary to erect the formwork and support, then lay the support feet and install the central brick. In the future, laying is performed simultaneously on both sides.
The mortar for laying the chimney is cement. At the point where the pipe comes out, you need to make a lap. This will help protect the wood from open flames. At the final stage, arrange a smoke chamber above the firebox. To prevent soot and sparks from flying out of the fireplace, a protruding cornice is made between the chamber and the firebox.
Upon completion of the work, wipe the firebox together with the smoke collector on the inside with a cloth, removing the remains of the solution. It should be remembered that there is no need to plaster the structure from the inside. In the future, the fireplace can be decorated as you wish, taking into account the interior of the room. It's easy to make a brick fireplace with your own hands, you must follow the sequence and do the work according to the drawing.
Video on how to make a fireplace with your own hands: