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Most black berries not only look beautiful, but also taste good. Although there are poisonous ones that are harmful to health.
- What fruits can be called berries
- Beneficial features
- What is what
- The difference between edible forest berries and inedible ones
- Healthy black berries
- Poisonous forest berries
- Signs of poisoning
- First aid for poisoning with poisonous fruits
What fruits can be called berries
Long ago, when scientists decided to classify fruits, they forgot about the existence of berries. Later, the existing classification was revised. The result was confusion. Not many people know and understand the differences between them.
There are a couple of concepts that differ fundamentally: scientific and common people. Among the people, it is customary to call berries not large, round fruits, in which there is no stone, having a bright color, with a juicy sweet or sweet-sour pulp. The scientific method of separation is not taken into account in this case.
In addition, the berries are taken with two fingers - the index and thumb. They are eaten whole or by handfuls. It is possible to collect them on the bushes or find them among the grass. Rowan and bird cherry - on the branches of trees. With the help of three fingers or the palm of the hand, take the fruit.
According to the scientific division, it turns out that gooseberries and currants belong to the group of berries. Rosehip, strawberry, wild strawberry - false berries, cherries and cherries are referred to as drupes.
Scientists have complicated things. The organ of a plant formed from the ovary and containing seeds or a bone, only one, is usually called a fruit.
Fruits that have juicy pulp and seeds in large quantities are called berries. Their development comes from the ovary.
There are types:
- the berries themselves - include gooseberries, cranberries, blueberries, blueberries, lingonberries, currants, grapes;
- apple - in addition to apples, this type includes pear and mountain ash fruits;
- pumpkin - fruits growing on melons, zucchini, pumpkins;
- orange - citrus fruits are referred to this type.
No matter what types scientists divide the fruits into, their benefits are important. The body is favorably influenced by the biologically active substances present in their composition. Traditional medicine advises using berries for food during the treatment of various pathologies.
In their composition, they contain carbohydrates in the form of glucose and fructose. Pectin, which removes pathogenic microflora and toxins from the body. In addition, they contain various trace elements - silver, molybdenum, manganese, nickel, cobalt, zinc, copper, potassium, boron, calcium, iodine, magnesium.
A small berry is an environmentally friendly product, without any chemicals, full of vitamins. There are very few proteins and fats. It follows from this that they cannot be called an energy source.
What is what
Berries are the fruits of tomatoes and eggplants.
Drupes are the fruits of stone fruits - peaches, cherries, apricots, plums, sweet cherries.
Polystyrene - referred to as complex, consisting of connected small drupes - raspberries, blackberries.
False berries include fruits growing on rose hips, wild strawberries, strawberries. It does not matter that strawberries have a lot of grains and juicy pulp - they are not a berry. After all, the small seeds that are on it, in their essence, are tiny nuts - the real fruits of strawberries. Considering everything, it is referred to as multi-nets.
When the "berry" is formed, the ovary and receptacle are involved, which have grown, contributing to the formation of juicy pulp.
In this regard, strawberries are classified as false berries. Rosehip nuts are located inside. He is also ranked among the false representatives of the species.
The difference between edible forest berries and inedible ones
The appearance of the conceived does not allow you to distinguish harmful from useful. Animals and birds do this without much difficulty. Pay attention to whether there are berries under the crown of a tree or under a bush that the animals were eating. This sign indicates that they are quite edible and not poisonous.
After trying one of the berries, do not rush to eat the next one. After all, their taste can also help in determining the edibility of the fruit. Bitter and tart ones are usually poisonous. Not poisonous - juicy, have a pleasant taste.
The most poisonous are small round fruits, with a shiny smooth surface, with a red or black color. They are always distinguished by their attractiveness. To be sure that they are not poisonous, you need to carefully study and remember the appearance and names of useful forest berries. Photos will help with this.
Healthy black berries
We offer a short catalog of edible garden and forest black berries with descriptions and photographs. In the garden or in the forest, black berries can be found on the branches of trees - chokeberry, bushes - currants, honeysuckle, and on herbaceous plants - blueberries, blueberries.
The fruits have antioxidant properties, are able to lower the concentration of cholesterol, improve vision, strengthen immunity, and improve the state of the cardiovascular system.
They will help cure coughs, colds, flu, tonsillitis, fight bacteria and viruses.
Aronia in nature is represented by two varieties: chokeberry and red-fruited mountain ash. Today, purple chokeberry is known, which is a hybrid obtained by crossing red and black mountain ash.
Its berries are used in the manufacture of jams, juices and jams.
This plant has several other names: glabrous malpighia, acerola cherry. It grows in Central America and the West Indies, where juice from its berries is very popular. The fruits of this plant contain 65 times more vitamin C than oranges.
The fruit is a drupe, blue-black. Usually birds feed on them.
Small, round, black berries are one of the main commercial crops in Brazil. It is used to make a variety of drinks. Their antioxidant properties have been known for a long time.
Virginia bird cherry
Unripe fruits with a red color are sour and tart. When they ripen, they acquire a dark color and become less tart.
Syrups, jam, jelly are prepared from them, but this requires a large amount of sugar or its substitute.
Berries with a classic sweet taste, without cloying. The raspberry aroma is not lost during heat treatment. The fruit contains ellagic acid, which helps prevent the growth of cancer cells.
This makes the fruit of the bush an effective preventive measure to prevent the development of cancer.
The shrub has black, pleasantly smelling berries, which outwardly resemble the fruits of red currants. Used in the manufacture of jams, pies, ice cream, cakes.
Vitamin C is contained in a huge amount. In addition, they contain iron, vitamin B5, phosphorus, potassium.
The composition of the fruit contains: vitamin C, potassium, calcium, magnesium and quercetin - successfully eliminating free radicals. For centuries, honeysuckle berries have been used in recipes by Chinese healers. Some of the varieties contain poison, so its fruits should be purchased in stores or grown on your own plot than plucked in the forest.
Eaten blackberry fruits contribute to the normalization of metabolic processes in the human body, increase immunity. Infusions and decoctions made from roots and foliage help with wound healing, have an astringent and anti-inflammatory effect.
The height of the plant sometimes reaches 1.5 m. In spring, the bushes are decorated with large white flowers. The berries are similar in shape to raspberries, but they are black in color, covered with a bluish bloom, with a sour-tart taste.
Belongs to the mulberry family.
It has hard leaves with small teeth along the edge. Fragrant and juicy berries of dark purple or almost black color. Jam, syrups, jams are made from them.
The fruits of this plant help to improve vision, strengthen the walls of blood vessels, and are used to prevent diabetes.
Wetlands are a favorite habitat. The plant is a shrub. Its height reaches 40 centimeters. Elongated leathery leaves. The fruit has a sweet red pulp. They are usually eaten fresh, but they are also prepared in the form of jam or jam.
In the treatment of gastritis and enterocolitis, fruits and leaves are used. In addition, they have antipyretic, vasodilating and anti-inflammatory properties. The bush is about one meter tall, the berries are bluish in color.
Found in northern regions, it is frost-resistant. Collecting blueberries is quite difficult because it does not tolerate transportation well.
Well-branching creeping shrub. Its height does not exceed 20 centimeters, and the length of the lashes can reach one meter. Grows in swampy areas. Stores very well without any special treatment.
Berries have the richest chemical composition. They are used in the treatment of nervous disorders, headaches, liver and kidney diseases.
The fruits of the juniper are called cone-berries, which, when ripe, turn from green to black-purple, covered with a waxy coating. Rich in trace elements, essential oils.
They have a wide spectrum of action. They are used during the treatment of diseases of the lungs, genitourinary system, gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, joints.
Poisonous forest berries
While walking through the forest, you need to remember that not all of the berries have beneficial properties. Among them, there are often those that can harm the body and cause severe poisoning or even death.
Outwardly, the plant looks like homemade grapes. It is widespread throughout Russia. It has small berries that can easily be mistaken for regular grapes. They have a pungent, astringent and unpleasant taste. These signs will help you identify it.
To harm your health, you need to eat a lot of berries.
After trying just one and realizing that this is an inedible girlish grape, do not panic, but simply do not eat anymore.
Low herbaceous bushes, often found in the forest. The berries of the plant resemble small tomatoes or peppers. They have a sweet and bitter taste. They are highly poisonous. Cannot be used in food under any pretext.
This shrub resembles a bird cherry. Buckthorn fruits are poisonous.
The berries of the plant are colored black, vaguely similar to the fruits of bird cherry and mountain ash, have a sharp, unpleasant odor, and are poisonous. The juice provokes inflammation of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity and intestines. If the juice gets on the skin, it will cause watery blisters.
Lakonos or American phytolacca
The plant is found not only in the wild, but sometimes in the adjoining areas. He has powerful inflorescences that resemble ears and black-purple berries, which contain many harmful substances that can harm the human body.
The fruits of this plant can be confused with bird cherry. In common people they are called "wolf berries". You cannot eat them - they are highly poisonous.
It is a short plant with only four leaves on its stem. Their arrangement resembles a cross. In the place where the leaves grow together, there is only one berry, it is black. You can't eat berries, because it's dangerous.
Belladonna or belladonna
Large and shiny berries are insidious. They taste sweet. But a couple of berries eaten can lead to respiratory arrest and death.
Signs of poisoning
In case of poisoning with poisonous plants, the following symptoms are observed:
- increased heart rate;
- general malaise;
- pain in the epigastric region;
- upset gastrointestinal tract;
- the appearance of nausea, vomiting;
First aid for poisoning with poisonous fruits
Call an ambulance !!! And before she arrives, you need to clear your stomach.
Vomiting that occurs during poisoning is a protective reaction of the body. It helps to get rid of poisons. If vomiting is absent, it is necessary to induce it or wash out the stomach.
The simplest way is: drink 1.2-1.5 liters of warm water with the addition of manganese. The solution should be slightly pink. You can also use boiled water with baking soda. Then induce vomiting. This procedure must be repeated.
Then give the patient activated charcoal, at the rate of 1 tablet per 10 kilograms of the victim's weight. Coal can be replaced with any other absorbent.
To completely cleanse the body of poisons, it is necessary to make a cleansing enema or take a laxative.
At the end of these procedures, the victim must be wrapped up, if necessary, overlaid with heating pads. Drink hot sweet tea.
Useful information about edible and poisonous forest plants, we recommend that you carefully watch the video: